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Interprofessional Education
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Interprofessional Education

When it comes to thinking about creating interprofessional curricula for pre-registration students, Barr and Low (2012) describe the need to create “outcome-led competency-based interprofessional curricula grounded in coherent, theoretical rationale, while safeguarding the identity of each profession and respecting profession-specific requirements and benchmarking statements.”

Definitions:
Interprofessional Education: “Those occasions when members of two or more professions learn with, from, and about one another to improve collaboration and the quality of [service].” (CAIPE 1997)

Interprofessional Collaborative Practice: “When multiple health workers from different professional backgrounds work together with patients, families, careers, and communities to deliver the highest quality of care.” (WHO, 2010)

Interprofessionality: “An education and practice orientation, an approach to care and education where educators and practitioners collaborate synergistically.” (d’Amour and Oandasan 2005 p10)

  • Theory +

    • Theories applied to interprofessional education

      Interprofessional education and collaborative practice have borrowed heavily and widely from various academies of thought, including sociology, psychology, education, anthropology, economics, political science, organizational theory…... and so on. The aim of this section is to present a synopsis of the relevant theories espoused in relation to interprofessional education and bring together a wide array of resources for those who wish to dive a little deeper.

      Some authors have already attempted to draw together and condense some of this work, below are some papers worth reading if you want a good overview of some diverse, though mostly sociological theory as applied to inter professional education

      The Theory Practice Relationship in Interprofessional Education
      Theoretical Insights into Interprofessional Education: AMEE Guide No.62

      Clark PG. What would a theory of interprofessional education look like? Some suggestions for developing a theoretical framework for teamwork training 1. J Interprof Care. 2006 Dec;20(6):577-89. PubMed PMID: 17095437.

      The focus of the January 2013 edition of the Journal of Interprofessional Care (Volume 27), was theory use in interprofessional education and collaboration.

      For a Deeper Exploration of Individual Theories

      You may wish to consider the following theories. This list is not exhaustive.

      Sociological Theories

      • Theories of Social Action
      • Social Capital Theory
      • Contact Hypothesis
      • Activity Theory
      • Complexity Theory
      • Stereotyping
      • Social Identity Theory
      • Generalization

      Psychological Theories

      • Group Work and Teamwork Approaches
      • Attitude change
      • Factors that Mediate Behavioral Change

      Adult Learning Theories

      • Problem-based learning
      • Situational Learning and Communities of Practice

  • Outcome Measures +

    • The National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education - Assessment Help and Tools

      Assessment Help
      Tool Repository

      CIHC Evaluation Framework

      The CIHC Evaluation Framework originated from the interprofessional education for collaborative, patient-centred practice projects (IECPCP), funded by Health Canada. The initial intent was to catalog the instruments and outcomes of the funded projects. Further development by D’Amour and Oandasan (2004) has led to the provision of this very useful resource that can assist with the selection of assessment tools for interprofessional activities, including assessment of the educational system, health professional learner outcomes, the professional system, government policy, and patient / provider outcomes.

      Example Published / Validated Instruments

      • ATHT - Attitudes Towards Health Care Teams
      • iCCAS - The Interprofessional Collaborative Competency Attainment Scale
      • ITPS - Interprofessional Team Performance Scale
      • IEPS - Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale
      • IPRQ - Interprofessional Reciprocity Pre-Questionnaire
      • CSCD - Collaboration and Satisfaction about Care Decisions Scale

      Best Practice Guidelines and Reviews

      The following articles contain reviews and guidelines on how to apply best practice to the evaluation of interprofessional educational activities.

      • Freeth, D., Reeves, S., Koppel, I., Hammick, M., Barr, H. (2005) Evaluating Interprofessional Education: A Self-Help Guide. Higher Education Academy.

      This article by Freeth et al (2005) provides a guide for both novice and experienced evaluators to assessing interprofessional activities. It includes the 3P model adapted from Freeth & Reeves (2004), the 3P’s representing presage, process and product. Presage relates to the constraints and influences on the design and delivery of IPE activities, process to the delivery, including approaches to teaching and learning, and product is concerned with the outcomes of IPE activities.

      This article catalogs the evaluation frameworks and tools used in 20 Canadian interprofessianal education and collaborative patient-centered practice (IECPCP) learning projects.

      • Thistlethwaite J, Moran M; World Health Organization Study Group on Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice. Learning Outcomes for Interprofessional Education : Literature Review and Synthesis. J Interprof Care. 2010 Sep;24(5):503-13. Review. PubMed PMID: 20718596.
      • Gillan C, Lovrics E, Halpern E, Wiljer D, Harnett N. The evaluation of learner outcomes in interprofessional continuing education: a literature review and an analysis of survey instruments. Med Teach. 2011;33(9):e461-70. Review. PubMed PMID: 21854139.

      The following articles relate to specific measurement tools

      ATHT - Attitudes Towards Health Care Teams

      • Heinemann, G.D., Schmitt, M.H., Farrell, M.P., & Brallier, S.A. (1999). Development of an Attitudes Toward Health Care Teams Scale. Evaluation & the Health Professions, 22, 123-142.
      • Hyer, K., Fairchild, S., Abraham, I., Mezey, M., Fulmer, T. (2000). Measuring attitudes related to interdisciplinary training: revisiting the Heinemann, Schmitt and Farrell ‘attitudes toward health care teams’ scale Journal of Interprofessional Care 14(3): 249-258.

      RIPLS - Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale

      • Parsell G, Bligh J. The development of a questionnaire to assess the readiness of health care students for interprofessional learning (RIPLS). Med Educ. 1999 Feb;33(2):95-100. PubMed PMID: 10211258.
      • McFadyen, A.K., Webster V., Strachan K., Figgins E., Brown H., Mckechnie J. (2005). The Readiness for interprofessional learning scale: A possible more stable sub-scale model for the original version of RIPLS. Journal of Interprofessional Care 19(6): 595 – 603.

      ITPS - Interprofessional Team Performance Scale

      IEPS - Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale

      • Luecht RM, Madsen MK, Taugher MP, Petterson BJ. (1990). Assessing professional perceptions: design and validation of an Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale. Journal of Allied Health 19(2):181-91

      IPRQ - Interprofessional Reciprocity Pre-Questionnaire

      CSCD - Collaboration and Satisfaction about Care Decisions Scale

      • Lê Q, Spencer J, Whelan J. Development of a tool to evaluate health science students’ experiences of an interprofessional education (IPE) programme. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2008 Dec;37(12):1027-33. PubMed PMID: 19159037.

  • Evidence IPE +

    • Interprofessional Journals

      Journal of Interprofessional Care
      Journal of Research in Interprofessional Practice and Education

      Reviews and Systematic Reviews

      • Hammick M., Freeth D., Koppel I., Reeves S., and Barr H., A Best Evidence Systematic Review of Interprofessional Education: BEME Guide no. 9, Medical Teacher, 2007, 29(8): 735-751.
      • Cooper H., Carlisle C., Watkins C., Gibbs T. 2001 Developing an evidence base for interdisciplinary learning, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 35 92):228-237
      • Reeves S, Zwarenstein M, Goldman J, Barr H, Freeth D, Koppel I, Hammick M. The effectiveness of interprofessional education: key findings from a new systematic review. J Interprof Care. 2010 May;24(3):230-41. Review. PubMed PMID: 20178425.
      • Reeves S, Zwarenstein M, Goldman J, Barr H, Freeth D, Hammick M, Koppel I., Interprofessional education: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD002213. Review. PubMed PMID: 18254002.
      • Thistlethwaite J. Interprofessional education: a review of context, learning and the research agenda. Med Educ. 2012 Jan;46(1):58-70. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04143.x. PubMed PMID: 22150197.

      Making Interprofessional Education Work

      • Oandasan I. and Reeves S., Key Elements of Interprofessional Education. Part 1: The Learner, the Educator, and the Learning Context, Journal of Interprofessional Care, May 2005, 1 (suppl): 21-38.
      • Oandasan I. and Reeves S., Key Elements of Interprofessional Education. Part 2: Factors, Processes and Outcomes, Journal of Interprofessional Care, May 2005, 1 (suppl): 39-48.
      • Reeves S, Goldman J, Oandasan I. Key factors in planning and implementing interprofessional education in health care settings. J Allied Health. 2007 Winter;36(4):231-5. PubMed PMID: 18293805.
      • Thistlethwaite J, Moran M; World Health Organization Study Group on Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice. Learning outcomes for interprofessional education (IPE): Literature review and synthesis. J Interprof Care. 2010 Sep;24(5):503-13. Review. PubMed PMID: 20718596.
      • Kendall H., et al., Making Interprofessional Education Work: The Strategic Roles of the Academy, Academic Medicine, October 2008, 83(10): 934-940.
      • Bridges DR, Davidson RA, Odegard PS, Maki IV, Tomkowiak J. Interprofessional collaboration: three best practice models of interprofessional education. Med Educ Online. 2011 Apr 8;16. doi: 10.3402/meo.v16i0.6035. PubMed PMID: 21519399; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3081249.
      • Hoffman SJ, Harnish D. The merit of mandatory interprofessional education for pre-health professional students. Med Teach. 2007 Oct;29(8):e235-42. PubMed PMID: 18236267.
      • Buring SM, Bhushan A, Broeseker A, Conway S, Duncan-Hewitt W, Hansen L, Westberg S. Interprofessional education: definitions, student competencies, and guidelines for implementation. Am J Pharm Educ. 2009 Jul 10;73(4):59. PubMed. PMID: 19657492; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2720355.

      Faculty Development

      • Curran VR, Deacon DR, Fleet L. Academic administrators’ attitudes towards interprofessional education in Canadian schools of health professional education. J Interprof Care. 2005 May;19 Suppl 1:76-86. PubMed PMID: 16096147.
      • Curran V.R., Sharpe D., and Forristall J., Attitudes of Health Sciences Faculty Members Towards Interprofessional Education, Medical Education, 2007, 41: 892-896.
      • Alberto J., Herth K., Interprofessional Collaboration within Faculty Roles: Teaching, Service and Research. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 2009, May:14 (2).
      • Silver I.L. and Leslie K., Faculty Development for Continuing Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice, Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 2009, 29(3): 172-177. PubMed PMID: 19728382.
      • Steinert Y. Learning Together to Teach Together: Interprofessional Education and Faculty Development, Journal of Interprofessional Care, May 2005, Supplement 1: 60-75. PubMed PMID: 1609614
      • Ho K, Jarvis-Selinger S, Borduas F, Frank B, Hall P, Handfield-Jones R, Hardwick DF, Lockyer J, Sinclair D, Lauscher HN, Ferdinands L, MacLeod A, Robitaille MA, Rouleau M. Making interprofessional education work: the strategic roles of the academy. Acad Med. 2008 Oct;83(10):934-40. Review. PubMed PMID: 18820523
      • Egan-Lee E, Baker L, Tobin S, Hollenberg E, Dematteo D, Reeves S. Neophyte facilitator experiences of interprofessional education: implications for faculty development. J Interprof Care. 2011 Sep;25(5):333-8. PubMed PMID: 21823882.

      Pre-registration Students

      • Johnson AW, Potthoff SJ, Carranza L, Swenson HM, Platt CR, Rathbun JR. CLARION: a novel interprofessional approach to health care education. Acad Med. 2006 Mar;81(3):252-6. PubMed PMID: 16501268.
      • Moray House Study (McMichael & Gilloram, 1984)
      • The Bristol Studies (Carpenter & Hewstone
      • Curran V.R., Sharpe D., Flynn K., and Button P., A Longitudinal Study of the Effect of an Interprofessional Education Curriculum on Student Satisfaction and Attitudes Towards Interprofessional Teamwork and Education, Journal of Interprofessional Care, January 2010, 24(1): 41-52.
      • Hawk C., Buckwalter K., Byrd L., Cigelman S., Dorfman L., and Ferguson K., Health Professions Students’ Perceptions of Interprofessional Relationships, Academic Medicine, April 2002, 77(4): 354-357.
      • Reeves S. and Pryce A., Emerging themes: an exploratory research project of an interprofessional education module for medical, dental and nursing students, Nurse Education Today, October 1998, 18(7): 534-541.
      • Solomon P., Baptiste S., Hall P., Luke R., Orchard C., Rukholm E., Carter L., King S., and Damiani-Taraba G., Students’ Perceptions of Interprofessional Learning Through Facilitated Online Learning Modules, Medical Teacher, 2010, 32: e391-e398.
      • Hall,P.D., Zoller, J.S., West V.T., Lancaster, C.J., Blue A.V. A Novel Approach to Interprofessional Education: Interprofessional Day, the Four-Year Experience at the Medical University of South Carolina. Journal of Research in Interprofessional Practice and Education Vol. 2.1 July, 2011
      • Coster S, Norman I, Murrells T, Kitchen S, Meerabeau E, Sooboodoo E, d’Avray L., Interprofessional attitudes amongst undergraduate students in the health professions: a longitudinal questionnaire survey. Int J Nurs Stud. 2008 Nov;45(11):1667-81. Epub 2008 Apr 18. PubMed PMID: 18423644.
      • Cooper H, Spencer-Dawe E, McLean E. Beginning the process of teamwork: design, implementation and evaluation of an inter-professional education intervention for first year undergraduate students. J Interprof Care. 2005 Oct;19(5):492-508. PubMed PMID: 16308172.
      • Pollard KC, Miers ME. From students to professionals: results of a longitudinal study of attitudes to pre-qualifying collaborative learning and working in health and social care in the United Kingdom. J Interprof Care. 2008 Aug;22(4):399-416. PubMed PMID: 18800281.
      • Pollard KC, Miers ME, Gilchrist M, Sayers A. A comparison of interprofessional perceptions and working relationships among health and social care students: the results of a 3-year intervention. Health Soc Care Community. 2006 Nov;14(6):541-52. PubMed PMID: 17059496.

      Post-Professional Students

      • The Birmingham Study (Barnes et al, 2000)

  • Evidence ICP +

    • Systematic Reviews

      • Zwarenstein M., Goldman J., and Reeves S., Interprofessional Collaboration: Effects of Practice-Based Interventions on Professional Practice and Healthcare Outcomes (Review), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 3. Art No: CD000072 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000072pub2.
      • Reeves S, Zwarenstein M, Goldman J, Barr H, Freeth D, Hammick M, Koppel I., Interprofessional education: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD002213. Review. PubMed PMID: 18254002.

      Practice-based Education

      • Steven A, Dickinson C, Pearson P. Practice-based interprofessional education: looking into the black box. J Interprof Care. 2007 Jun;21(3):251-64. PubMed PMID: 17487704.
      • Robson M, Kitchen SS. Exploring physiotherapy students’ experiences of interprofessional collaboration in the clinical setting: a critical incident study. J Interprof Care. 2007 Feb;21(1):95-109. PubMed PMID:17365377.
      • Copley JA, Allison HD, Hill AE, Moran MC, Tait JA, Day T. Making interprofessional education real: a university clinic model. Aust Health Rev. 2007 Aug;31(3):351-7. PubMed PMID: 17669056.
      • Liedtka JM, Whitten E. Enhancing care delivery through cross disciplinary collaboration: a case study. J Healthc Manag. 1998 Mar-Apr;43(2):185-203; discussion 203-5. PubMed PMID: 10179019.
      • Phelan AM, Barlow CA, Iversen S. Occasioning learning in the workplace: the case of interprofessional peer collaboration. J Interprof Care. 2006 Aug;20(4):415-24. PubMed PMID: 16905489.

      Mental Health

      • Kinnair DJ, Anderson ES, Thorpe LN. Development of interprofessional education in mental health practice: Adapting the Leicester Model. J Interprof Care. 2012 May;26(3):189-97. Epub 2012 Jan 17. PubMed PMID: 22250705.
      • Priest HM, Roberts P, Dent H, Blincoe C, Lawton D, Armstrong C. Interprofessional education and working in mental health: in search of the evidence base. J Nurs Manag. 2008 May;16(4):474-85. PubMed PMID: 18405264.
      • Craven MA, Bland R. Better practices in collaborative mental health care: an analysis of the evidence base. Can J Psychiatry. 2006 May;51(6 Suppl 1):7S-72S. Review. PubMed PMID: 16786824.
      • Coleman MT, Roberts K, Wulff D, van Zyl R, Newton K. Interprofessionalambulatory primary care practice-based educational program. J Interprof Care. 2008 Jan;22(1):69-84. PubMed PMID: 18202987.
      • Bradley P, Cooper S, Duncan F. A mixed-methods study of interprofessional learning of resuscitation skills. Med Educ. 2009 Sep;43(9):912-22. PubMed PMID: 19709016.
      • McNair R, Brown R, Stone N, Sims J. Rural interprofessional education: promoting teamwork in primary health care education and practice. Aust J Rural Health. 2001 Dec;9 Suppl 1:S19-26. PubMed PMID: 11998271.

  • Interprofessional Education and Collaboration Matrix +

    • Rodgers, et al (2010), on behalf of the World Health Organization Study Group on Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice, conducted a global environmental scan of interprofessional education (IPE), they found that despite the existence of clearly recognized best practice evidence, IPE initiatives tended to be voluntary, were not founded upon specific learning objectives, lacked assessment and evaluation regarding there impact, and were not provided by instructors who were trained in facilitating IPE activities.

      Hean et al. (2012), stress the need to anchor interprofessional initiatives in theory, and numerous systematic reviews have highlighted the need to design such initiatives based upon best practice evidence.

      This matrix was developed to illustrate and draw attention to, the key components of interprofessional education and collaboration, and to assist in gathering and organizing, resources and evidence, for those interested in gaining an understanding of interprofessional education and collaboration. Each block of the matrix represents an intersection of a domain (e.g.education), competency (e.g. values and ethics) and focus (e.g. theory).

      This design of this site attempts to complete each block within the matrix, reflecting the current theoretical perspectives, available evidence, and outcome measures, it also provides information on global, national, and ATSU interprofessional initiatives. This site is intended to be a resources for those in the process of developing or refining interprofessional initiatives.

  • Interprofessional Education Best Practice +

    • Rodgers et al (2010) describe the following five evidence-based best practices, drawn from the World Health Organization’s Framework for Action on Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice (WHO, 2010).

      IPE should be:

      1. A mandatory component of every health professional’s education
      2. Offered based on explicit learning outcomes that are made clear to both staff and students
      3. Assessed with respect to what students were intended to learn
      4. Offered by trained facilitators who have received staff development in this area
      5. Evaluated for both process and outcomes

      Supporting Literature

      1. Institute of Medicine (2001), Hoffman & Harnish (2007) and Ho, Jarvis-Selinger, Borduas, Frank, Hall, Handfield-Jones et al. (2008)
      2. Ramsden (2003), Freeth, Hammick, Reeves, Koppel, & Barr (2005), Norton (2009) and Thistlethwaite & Moran (2010)
      3. Freeth et al. (2005) and Biggs & Tang (2007)
      4. Hammick et al. (2007), Lindqvist et al. (2008) and Hammick et al. (2009)
      5. Barr et al. (2000), Hammick (2000), Freeth et al. (2002), Barr et al. (2005) and Reeves et al. (2008)

  • Courses +

    • Core Course: ASDOH IPE +

      Elective Course: Interprofessional Cross-campus Collaborative Case +

      Elective Course: Interprofessional Health Partners +

      Elective Course: Individual Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (iCST) +

      Interprofessional Education in Pre‐registration Courses +

  • Core Competencies +

    • 1: Values/Ethics for Interprofessional Practice+

      2: Roles/Responsibilities+

      3: Interprofessional Communication+

      4: Teams and Teamwork+

  • Global and National Initiatives +

    • National Activities within the USA

      • American Interprofessional Health Collaborative (AIHC) - This organization is a great source for information on interprofessional activities within US Colleges and Universities. AIHC is aligned with the National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education.
      • ​National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education - The National Center is charged to provide the leadership, evidence and resources needed to guide the nation on interprofessional education and collaborative practice.In that pursuit, we aim to challenge tradition and create a deeply connected, integrated learning system that will transform education and care together
      • National Academies of Practice (NAP) - Distinguished professionals advancing interprofessional healthcare by fostering collaboration and advocating policies in the best interest of individuals and communities. NAP is a collaboration between 14 professional academies.

      Global Initiatives

      International Interprofessional Organizations
      There are many excellent resources available through international organizations dedicated to promoting interprofessional education and collaboration.

      The World Coordinating Committee for Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice - ​All Together Better Health

      • AFRIPEN - The Sub-Saharan African Interprofessional Education Network
      • AIHC - The American Interprofessional Health Collaborative (USA)
      • AIPPEN - The Australasian Interprofessional Practice and Education Network (Australia and New Zealand)
      • CAIPE - The (UK) Centre for the Advancement of Interprofessional Education
      • CIHC - The Canadian Interprofessional Health Collaborative
      • EIPEN - The European Interprofessional Practice and Education Network
      • JAIPE - The Japan Association for Interprofessional Education
      • JIPWEN - The Japan Interprofessional Working and Education Network
      • NIPNET - The Nordic Interprofessional Network (Nordic countries in Europe)

      Useful Resources

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