Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine
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Publications of Rachel L. Ruhlen, PhD

21. Ruhlen RL, Singh VK, Pazdernik VK, Towns LC, Snider EJ, Sargentini NJ, Degenhardt BF. Changes in rat spinal cord gene expression after inflammatory hyperalgesia of the joint and manual therapy. JAOA 114(10) J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2014 Oct;114(10):768-76. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.2014.151. PubMed
20. Ruhlen RL, Snider EJ, Sargentini NJ, Worthington BD [Student], Singh VK, Pazdernik VM, Johnson JC, Degenhardt BF. Influence of Manual Therapy on Functional Mobility After Joint Injury in a Rat Model. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2013 Oct;113(10):738-752. PubMed
Ruhlen RL, Taylor JA, Mao J, Kirkpatrick J, Welshons WV, vom Saal FS. Choice of animal feed can alter fetal steroid levels and mask developmental effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals. J Dev Orig Health Dis, 2(1):36-48 (2011).

Taylor JA, Richter CA, Ruhlen RL, vom Saal FS. Estrogenic environmental
chemicals and drugs: mechanisms for effects on the developing male urogenital
system. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2011 Oct;127(1-2):83-95. Epub 2011 Jul 30.


Ruhlen RL, Sauter ER. Plant based therapies to prevent/treat cancer. (Editorial) Expert Rev. Clin Pharmacol 2010 3(1):1-3. PDF

Qin W, Zhu W, Shi H, Hewett JE, Ruhlen RL, MacDonald RS, Rottinghaus GE, Chen
YC, Sauter ER. Soy isoflavones have an antiestrogenic effect and alter mammary
promoter hypermethylation in healthy premenopausal women. Nutr Cancer.

2009;61(2):238-44. PubMed

Ruhlen RL, Willbrand DM, Besch-Williford CL, Ma L, Shull JD, Sauter ER.
Tamoxifen induces regression of estradiol-induced mammary cancer in the
ACI.COP-Ept2 rat model. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009 Oct;117(3):517-24. Epub

2008 Sep 9. PubMed

Sauter ER, Scott S, Hewett J, Kliethermes B, Ruhlen RL, Basarakodu K, de la
Torre R. Biomarkers associated with breast cancer are associated with obesity.

Cancer Detect Prev. 2008;32(2):149-55. Epub 2008 Jul 17. PubMed

Ruhlen RL, Howdeshell KL, Mao J, Taylor JA, Bronson FH, Newbold RR, Welshons
WV, vom Saal FS. Low phytoestrogen levels in feed increase fetal serum estradiol
resulting in the "fetal estrogenization syndrome" and obesity in CD-1 mice. Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Mar;116(3):322-8. PubMed

Ruhlen RL, Sauter ER. Breast cancer, in-situ (monograph). BMJ Point of Care. (2008)
Sauter ER, Qin W, Hewett JE, Ruhlen RL, Flynn JT, Rottinghaus G, Chen YC.
Celecoxib concentration predicts decrease in prostaglandin E2 concentrations in
nipple aspirate fluid from high risk women. BMC Cancer. 2008 Feb 11;8:49. PubMed
Ruhlen RL, Sun GY, Sauter ER. Black cohosh: Insights on its mechanism(s) of action. Integrative Medicine Insights. 2008;3:21-32. PDF

Ruhlen RL, Sauter ER. Proteomic analysis of breast tissue and nipple aspirate fluid for breast cancer detection. (Review). Biomarkers in Medicine. 2007;1(2):251-260. Abstract

Ruhlen RL, Haubner J, Tracy JK, Zhu W, Ehya H, Lamberson WR, Rottinghaus GE,
Sauter ER. Black cohosh does not exert an estrogenic effect on the breast. Nutr
Cancer. 2007;59(2):269-77. PubMed
Ruhlen RL, Sauter ER. Proteomics of nipple aspirate fluid, breast cyst fluid, milk and colostrum (Review). Proteomics - Clinical Applications. 2007;1(8):845-52. Abstract
Richter CA, Taylor JA, Ruhlen RL, Welshons WV, Vom Saal FS. Estradiol and
Bisphenol A stimulate androgen receptor and estrogen receptor gene expression in
fetal mouse prostate mesenchyme cells. Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Jun;115(6):902-8. Epub 2007 Feb 27. PubMed
Vom Saal FS, Richter CA, Ruhlen RR, Nagel SC, Timms BG, Welshons WV. The importance of appropriate controls, animal feed, and animal models in interpreting results from low-dose studies of bisphenol A. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2005 Mar;73(3):140-5. PubMed

vom Saal FS, Richter CA, Ruhlen RL, Nagel SC, Welshons WV. Disruption of laboratory experiments due to leaching of bisphenol a from polycarbonate cages and bottles and uncontrolled variability in components of animal feed, International Workshop on Development of Science-Based Guidelines for Laboratory Animal Care, Washington DC, National Academies Press. 2004;65-9. Google Books


Howdeshell KL, Peterman PH, Judy BM, Taylor JA, Orazio CE, Ruhlen RL, Vom
Saal FS, Welshons WV. Bisphenol A is released from used polycarbonate animal
cages into water at room temperature. Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jul;111(9):1180-7. PubMed PMID: 12842771. PubMed


Alworth LC, Howdeshell KL, Ruhlen RL, Day JK, Lubahn DB, Huang TH, Besch-Williford CL, vom Saal FS. Uterine responsiveness to estradiol and DNA methylation are altered by fetal exposure to diethylstilbestrol and methoxychlor in CD-1 mice: effects of low versus high doses. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2002 Aug 15;183(1):10-22. PubMed


Thayer KA, Ruhlen RL, Howdeshell KL, Buchanan DL, Cooke PS, Preziosi D,
Welshons WV, Haseman J, vom Saal FS. Altered prostate growth and daily sperm
production in male mice exposed prenatally to subclinical doses of
17alpha-ethinyl oestradiol. Hum Reprod. 2001 May;16(5):988-96. PubMed

Other Scholarly Works Return to top
Ruhlen RL, Sauter ER, "Plant extracts and breast cancer", p 402-413, In: Botanical Medicine in Clinical Practice, ed. Watson RR and Preedy VR, Oxfordshire, UK, CABI Publishing, 2008.

Ruhlen RL, Haubner J, Sutterlin WR, Sauter ER. Comments on: "Monitoring breast skin temperature." J Hum Lact. 2007 Aug;23(3):232. PubMed


Ruhlen RL, Chen YC, Rottinghaus GE, Sauter ER. Comments on: "Transfer of celecoxib into human milk". J Hum Lact. 2007 Feb;23(1):13-4. PubMed


Ruhlen RL. What happens to the whistleblowers? Science. 2006 Oct 13;314(5797):251-2. PubMed