Lex Towns, PhD



Work: 660.626.2468
Email Address: ltowns@atsu.edu

Research Interests: Dr. Towns' research is concerned with neuroanatomical description of central visual pathways and the development of the visual system in vertebrates. Currently, he is investigating the development of the visual system in the bullfrog and describing central visual pathways in the least shrew. The frog studies use techniques which identify dividing nerve cells in the tadpole brain. Other investigations use hybridoma technology to isolate and localize chemical signals that may initiate and coordinate the complex series of developmental events which produce the mature visual system.

Education:

PhD - Indiana University (1972)

Scholarly Activity

Research Publications:

2014 | Ruhlen RL, Singh VK, Pazdernik VK, Towns LC, Snider EJ, Sargentini NJ, Degenhardt BF. Changes in rat spinal cord gene expression after inflammatory hyperalgesia of the joint and manual therapy. JAOA 114(10) J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2014 Oct;114(10):768-76. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.2014.151

2008 | Wang SS, Shultz JR, Burish MJ, Harrison KH, Hof PR, Towns LC, Wagers MW, Wyatt KD. Functional trade-offs in white matter axonal scaling. J Neurosci. 2008 Apr 9;28(15):4047-56

2007 | Degenhardt BF, Darmani NA, Johnson JC, Towns LC, Rhodes DC, Trinh C, McClanahan B, DiMarzo V. Role of osteopathic manipulative treatment in altering pain biomarkers: a pilot study. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2007 Sep;107(9):387-400

2005 | Stuart MK, Sexton PS, Cox BJ, Uray NJ, Towns LC. Monoclonal antibodies to the optic tectum and cerebellum of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. Trans Missouri Acad Sci. 2005, 39:12-22

2001 | Mock OB, Casteel SW, Darmani NA, Shaddy JH, Besch-Williford C, Towns LC. Anatomic and physiologic reference values in least shrews (Cryptotis parva). Comp Med. 2001 Dec;51(6):534-7

1994 | Darmani NA, Mock OB, Towns LC, Gerdes CF. The head-twitch response in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) is a 5-HT2- and not a 5-HT1C-mediated phenomenon. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1994 Jun;48(2):383-96

1990 | Towns LC, Tigges J, Tigges M. Termination of thalamic intralaminar nuclei afferents in visual cortex of squirrel monkey. Vis Neurosci 1990 Aug;5(2):151-4

1986 | Krogh JE, Towns LC. Is there morphological separation between the spinal cord motor nuclei which innervate the heads of a multiheaded muscle? Brain Res 1986 Mar 26;369(1-2):331-5

1984 | Krogh JE, Towns LC. Location of the cutaneous trunci motor nucleus in the dog. Brain Res 1984 Mar 19;295(2):217-25

1982 | Towns LC, Burton SL, Kimberly CJ, Fetterman MR. Projections of the dorsal lateral geniculate and lateral posterior nuclei to visual cortex in the rabbit. J Comp Neurol 1982 Sep 1;210(1):87-98

1982 | Cenedella RJ, Sarkar CP, Towns L. Studies on the mechanism of the epileptiform activity induced by U18666A. II. Concentration, half-life and distribution of radiolabeled U18666A in the brain. Epilepsia 1982 Jun;23(3):257-68

1980 | Giolli RA, Towns LC. A review of axon collateralization in the mammalian visual system. Brain Behav Evol 1980;17(5):364-90

1978 | Giolli RA, Towns LC, Takahashi TT, Karamanlidis AN, Williams DD. An autoradiographic study of the projections of visual cortical area 1 to the thalamus, pretectum and superior colliculus of the rabbit. J Comp Neurol 1978 Aug 15;180(4):743-51

1977 | Towns LC, Giolli RA, Haste DA. Corticocortical fiber connections of the rabbit visual cortex: a fiber degeneration study. J Comp Neurol 1977 Jun 1;173(3):537-60

1974 | Giolli RA, Towns LC, Haste DA. The mode of innervation of portions of the anterior and posterior pretectal nuclei of the rabbit by axons arising from the visual cortex. J Comp Neurol 1974 May 15;155(2):177-93

1973 | Stewart DL, Birt D, Towns LC. Visual receptive-field characteristics of superior colliculus neurons after cortical lesions in the rabbit. Vision Res 1973 Oct;13(10):1965-77

1973 | Stewart DL, Towns LC, Birt D. Visual receptive-field characteristics of posterior thalamic and pretectal neurons in the rabbit. Brain Res 1973 Jul 16;57(1):43-57

Other Scholarly Publications:

1984 | Towns LC. An outline of the use of horseradish peroxidase in neuronanatomical tract-tracing. Kopf Carrier, No. 12 1984

Presentations and Published Abstracts:

2008 | Fossum C, Sargentini NJ, Singh VK, Towns LC, Degenhardt BF; Carrageenan produces more consistent inflammation than capsaicin in Sprague-Dawley rats; Pain, Mind, and Movement II, Official Satellite Symposium of the 12th World Congress on Pain; Dublin, Ireland, UK; Aug. 13 - 15, 2008

2005 | Degenhardt BF, Darmani N, Towns L, Rhodes D, Trinh C, Johnson JC. Investigating the Effect of OMT on Circulatory Biochemical Markers. Pain, Mind, and Movement – A satellite symposium of the 11th World Congress on Pain, Cairns, Australia; August 17-19, 2005

2005 | Degenhardt BF, Darmani NA, Towns L, Rhodes DCJ, McGovern RJ, Johnson JC.Pain Biomarkers Altered Following Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment. 11th World Congress on Pain, Sydney, Australia; August 21-26, 2005

2004 | Degenhardt BF, Darmani N, Towns L, Rhodes D, Trinh C, Johnson JC. Investigating the Effect of OMT on Circulatory Biochemical Markers. Osteopathic Collaborative Clinical Trials Initiatives Conference; Colorado Springs, CO; March 15-16, 2004

2004 | Degenhardt BF, Darmani N, Towns L, Rhodes DCJ, Trinh C, Johnson JC. Investigating the Effect of OMT on Circulatory Biochemical Markers. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 104(8):343, 2004. American Osteopathic Association Annual Convention & Scientific Seminar; San Francisco, CA; November 7- 11, 2004

2003 | Stuart MK, Sexton PS, Cox BJ, Uray NJ, Towns LC. Monoclonal Antibodies to the Bullfrog Optic Tectum and Cerebellum. Missouri Academy of Sciences Annual Meeting; Warrensburg, MO; April 19, 2003

1998 | Towns LC, Mock OB. 1998. Retinal Projection in Least Shrews Cryptotis parva. Soc Neurosci Abs 24:1394