Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine
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Bruce A. Young, PhD



Associate Professor
Department of Anatomy


Address: A.T. Still University of Health Sciences
Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine
800 W. Jefferson St.
Kirksville, MO  63501

PhD: Biological Sciences (Anatomy), University of Calgary, 1989


Summer Course: Functional Morphology of Vertebrates at Leiden University, The Netherlands


MS: Biology, Northern Arizona University, 1986


BS: Zoology, Washington State University, 1984


Research Interests: Dr. Young's current research area is the neurobiology and biophysics of sensory systems, and particularly audition, in reptiles. Audition
in this group is remarkably diverse, including: pressure-coupled tympani in some taxa; tympanic and non-tympanic ears; elaborate stapedial dampening systems; separate low-frequency and high-frequency auditory pathways; as well as integration with pressure and/or vibration detection systems. A second area of research is the neurobiology of venom secretion, storage, and activation. Snake venom is extremely diverse in terms of its biochemical and toxicological
properties; perhaps the only common attribute is the proteolytic nature of these secretions. Though the system is poorly known, it appears that snakes secrete and store an inactive precursor to venom, then rapidly "activate" the venom by mixing it with other compounds (especially mineral ions). I am interested in the underlying neural control of this process, including such topics as: the neural pathway for venom activation, the relationship to salivation, and the pharmacological properties of the inactive precursors.

List of Publications
Annual lists of Publications, Grants, Abstracts/Presentations and Honors for the ATSU/KCOM faculty are available under Scholarly Activity