Byunghee 'Henry' Han, PhD


Work: 660.626.2728
Email Address:

Research Interests: Dr. Han lab is interested in the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying neurovascular dysfunction and cognitive deficit associated with neurological disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. His research also includes preclinical pharmacology studies to identify/validate new therapeutic targets for CNS disorders and evaluate the effects of novel drug candidates (small molecules, peptides and antibodies) for the diagnosis and treatment of neurovascular disorders utilizing in vitro as well as in vivo animal models. Currently, Dr. Han lab is exploring the effects of new multimodal agents on Aβ aggregation, metal chelation and cellular Aβ uptake/clearance, and their translational potential. Key experimental techniques in Dr. Han lab include microsurgery of experimental mice, brain tissue processing, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, PCR, real-time PCR, cell culture, VIS/UV/fluorescent spectroscopy, and fluorescent confocal microscopy.


Postdoctoral Research Fellow - Dept of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine (1998-2001)
PhD - (Pharmacology) University of Missouri, Columbia (1997)

Scholarly Activity

Research Publications:

2022 | Han BH, Cofell B, Everhart E, Humpal C, Kang SS, Lee SK, Kim-Han JS, Amentoflavone Promotes Cellular Uptake and Degradation of Amyloid-Beta in Neuronal Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23, 5885.

2021 | Windsor PK, Plassmeyer SP, Mattock DS, Choi EY, Miller BR, Han BH, Biflavonoid induced disruption of hydrogen bonds leads to Amyloid β disaggregation. Int J Mol Sci 22:2088, 2021.

2021 | Diwan D, Vellimana A, Aum Diane, Clarke J, Nelson J, Lawrence M, Han BH, Gidday J, Zipfel Z, Sirtuin 1 mediates protection against delayed cerebral ischemia in subarachnoid hemorrhage in response to hypoxic postconditioning. J Am Heart Assoc, 10:e021113, 2021.

2020 | Vellimana AK, Aum DJ, Diwan D, Clarke J, Nelson JW, Lawrence M, Hans H. Dietrich HH, Han BH, Gidday JM, Zipfel GJ, SIRT1 Mediates Hypoxic Preconditioning- and Resveratrol-Induced Attenuation of Neurovascular Dysfunction Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Exp Neurol 334: 113484, 2020.

2020 | Naik R, Foster D, Bray P, Chang Y, Han BH, Monocyte chemotactic protein-1-induced protein 1 (Mcpip1) contributes to neuronal injury following hypoxic-ischemia in the neonatal mouse brain. NeuroReport 31: 833-839, 2020.

2020 | Choi EY, Lee SK, Kang SS, Han BH, Polyphenolic biflavonoids inhibit amyloid-beta fibrillation and disaggregate preformed amyloid-beta fibrils. Biomol Ther 28:145-151, 2020.

2020 | Sun L, Shama AK, Han BH, Mirica L, Amentoflavone: A bifunctional metal chelator that controls the formation of neurotoxic soluble Aβ42 oligomers. ACS Chem Neurosci 11:2741-2752, 2020.

2017 | Aum DJ, Vellimana AK, Singh I, Milner E, Nelson JW, Han BH, Zipfel GJ. A novel fluorescent imaging technique for assessment of cerebral vasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage. Sci Rep7(1):9126. August 22, 2017.

2017 | Bandara N, Sharma A, Schultz J, Krieger S, Han BH, Rogers B, Mirica L. Evaluation of 64Cu-based radiopharmaceuticals that target Aβ peptide aggregates as diagnostic tools for Alzheimer’s disease. J Am Chem Soc, 39(36):12550-12558, 2017.

2017 | Vellimana AK, Zhou ML, Singh I, Aum DJ, Nelson JW, Harris G, Athiraman U, Han BH, Zipfel GJ, Minocycline Protects against Delayed Cerebral Ischemia after Subarachnoid hemorrhage via Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Inhibition. Ann Clin Trans Neurol, 4:865-876, 2017.

2016 | Washington CW, Derdeyn CP, Dhar R, Arias EJ, Chicoine MR, Cross DT, Dacey RG Jr, Han BH, Moran CJ, Rich KM, Vellimana AK, Zipfel GJ. A Phase I proof-of-concept and safety trial of sildenafil to treat cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 2016;124(2):318-327.

2016 | Reynolds MR, Singh I, Azad TD, Holmes BB, Verghese PB, Dietrich HH, Diamond M, Bu G, Han BH, Zipfel GJ. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate Aβ-induced oxidative stress and hypercontractility in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Mol Neurodegener. 2016 Jan 22;11(1):9. doi: 10.1186/s13024-016-0073-8

2015 | Bales KR, O'Neill SM, Pozdnyakov N, Pan F, Caouette D, Pi Y, Wood KM, Volfson D, Cirrito JR, Han BH, Johnson AW, Zipfel GJ, Samad TA. Passive immunotherapy targeting amyloid-β reduces cerebral amyloid angiopathy and improves vascular reactivity. Brain. 2015 Oct 22. pii: awv313. [Epub ahead of print]

2015 | Washington CW, Derdeyn CP, Dhar R, Arias EJ, Chicoine MR, Cross DT, Dacey RG Jr, Han BH, Moran CJ, Rich KM, Vellimana AK, Zipfel GJ. A Phase I proof-of-concept and safety trial of sildenafil to treat cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg. 2015 Aug 28:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]

2015 | Han BH, Zhou ML, Johnson AW, Singh I, Liao F, Vellimana AK, Nelson JW, Milner E, Cirrito JR, Basak J, Yoo M, Dietrich HH, Holtzman DM, Zipfel GJ. Contribution of reactive oxygen species to cerebral amyloid angiopathy, vasomotor dysfunction,and microhemorrhage in aged Tg2576 mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Feb 24;112(8):E881-90. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1414930112. Epub 2015 Feb 9

2015 | Lee HJ, Dietrich HH, Han BH, Zipfel GJ. Development of an ex vivo model for the study of cerebrovascular function utilizing isolated mouse olfactory artery. J Korean Neurosurg Soc. 2015 Jan;57(1):1-5. doi: 10.3340/jkns.2015.57.1.1. Epub 2015 Jan 31.

2015 | Milner E, Johnson AW, Nelson JW, Harries MD, Gidday JM, Han BH, Zipfel GJ. HIF-1α Mediates Isoflurane-Induced Vascular Protection in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2015 Apr;2(4):325-37. doi: 10.1002/acn3.170. Epub 2015 Feb 21.

2014 | Kim GS, Cho S, Nelson JW, Zipfel GJ, Han BH. TrkB agonist antibody pretreatment enhances neuronal survival and long-term sensory motor function following hypoxic ischemic injury in neonatal rats. PLoS One. 2014 Feb 14;9(2):e88962. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088962. eCollection 2014

2014 | Milner E, Zhou ML, Johnson AW, Vellimana AK, Greenberg JK, Holtzman DM, Han BH, Zipfel GJ. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy increases susceptibility to infarction after focal cerebral ischemia in Tg2576 mice. Stroke. 2014 Oct;45(10):3064-9. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.006078. Epub 2014 Sep 4

2014 | Milner E, Holtzman JC, Friess S, Hartman RE, Brody DL, Han BH, Zipfel GJ. Endovascular perforation subarachnoid hemorrhage fails to cause Morris water maze deficits in the mouse. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2014 Sep;34(9). doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.108. Epub 2014 Jun 18

2013 | Johnson AW, Zipfel GJ, Han BH. Editorial: Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: Perspectives on cerebrovascular dysfunction, J Neurol Dis. 2013 2:1

2012 | Han BH, Vellimana AK, Zhou ML, Milner E, Zipfel GJ. Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition attenuates cerebral vasospasm and improves functional recovery after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery. 2012 Jan;70(1):178-86;discussion 186-7. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31822ec2b0.

2011 | Han BH, Zhou ML, Vellimana AK, Milner E, Kim DH, Greenberg JK, Chu W, Mach RH, Zipfel GJ. Resorufin analogs preferentially bind cerebrovascular amyloid: potential use as imaging ligands for cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Mol Neurodegener. 2011 Dec 22;6:86. doi: 10.1186/1750-1326-6-86

2011 | Vellimana AK, Milner E, Azad TD, Harries MD, Zhou ML, Gidday JM, Han BH, Zipfel GJ. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates endogenous protection against subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced cerebral vasospasm. Stroke. 2011 Mar;42(3):776-82. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.607200. Epub 2011 Feb 11

2010 | Dietrich HH, Xiang C, Han BH, Zipfel GJ, Holtzman DM. Soluble amyloid-beta, effect on cerebral arteriolar regulation and vascular cells. Mol Neurodegener. 2010 Apr 13;5:15. doi: 10.1186/1750-1326-5-15

2008 | Han BH, Zhou ML, Abousaleh F, Brendza RP, Dietrich HH, Koenigsknecht-Talboo J, Cirrito JR, Milner E, Holtzman DM, Zipfel GJ. Cerebrovascular dysfunction in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice: contribution of soluble and insoluble amyloid-beta peptide, partial restoration via gamma-secretase inhibition. J Neurosci. 2008 Dec 10;28(50):13542-50. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4686-08.2008

2009 | Zipfel GJ, Han H, Ford AL, Lee JM. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy: progressive disruption of the neurovascular unit. Stroke. 2009 Mar;40(3 Suppl):S16-9. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.533174. Epub 2008 Dec 8

2005 | Wei L, Han BH, Li Y, Keogh CL, Holtzman DM, Yu SP. Cell death mechanism and protective effect of erythropoietin after focal ischemia in the whisker-barrel cortex of neonatal rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Apr;317(1):109-16. Epub 2005 Dec 15.

2005 | Park GH, Ryu JR, Shin CY, Choi MS, Han BH, Kim WK, Kim HC, Ko KH. Evidence that protease-activated receptor-2 mediates trypsin-induced reversal of stellation in cultured rat astrocytes. Neurosci Res. 2006 Jan;54(1):15-23. Epub 2005 Oct 26.

2006 | Hwang IK, Yoo KY, Kim DW, Kang TC, Choi SY, Kwon YG, Han BH, Kim JS, Won MH. Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1 alters in pyramidal cells and expresses in astrocytes of the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after ischemia. Brain Res. 2006 May 1;1086(1):181-90. Epub 2006 Apr 13

2006 | Hwang IK, Yoo KY, Kim DW, Lee BH, Kang TC, Choi SY, Han BH, Kim JS, Won MH. Ischemia-related changes of glial-derived neurotrophic factor and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in the hippocampus: their possible correlation in astrocytes. Brain Res. 2006 Feb 9;1072(1):215-23. Epub 2006 Jan 17.

2005 | Shin DH, Bae YC, Kim-Han JS, Lee JH, Choi IY, Son KH, Kang SS, Kim WK, Han BH. Polyphenol amentoflavone affords neuroprotection against neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage via multiple mechanisms. J Neurochem. 2006 Jan;96(2):561-72. Epub 2005 Dec 8

2005 | Kim GS, Choi YK, Song SS, Kim WK, Han BH. MKP-1 contributes to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis via inactivation of ERK1/2 in SH-SY5Y cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Dec 30;338(4):1732-8. Epub 2005 Nov 2

2005 | Kang SS, Lee JY, Choi YK, Song SS, Kim JS, Jeon SJ, Han YN, Son KH, Han BH. Neuroprotective effects of naturally occurring biflavonoids. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005 Aug 1;15(15):3588-91

2005 | Kim SW, Her SJ, Park SJ, Kim D, Park KS, Lee HK, Han BH, Kim MS, Shin CS, Kim SY. Ghrelin stimulates proliferation and differentiation and inhibits apoptosis in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Bone. 2005 Sep;37(3):359-69

2005 | Hwang IK, Lee KY, Yoo KY, Kim DS, Lee NS, Jeong YG, Kang TC, Han BH, Kim JS,Won MH. Tyrosine kinase A but not phosphacan/protein tyrosine phosphatase-zeta/beta immunoreactivity and protein level changes in neurons and astrocytes in the gerbil hippocampus proper after transient forebrain ischemia. Brain Res. 2005 Mar 2;1036(1-2):35-41

2005 | Shin H, Hwang IK, Yoo KY, Song JH, Jung JY, Kang TC, Choi SY, Han BH, Kim JS, Won MH. Expression and changes of Ca2+-ATPase in neurons and astrocytes in the gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia. Brain Res. 2005 Jul5;1049(1):43-51.

2004 | Yoo BK, Choi JW, Han BH, Kim WK, Kim HC, Ko KH. Role of MAPK/ERK1/2 in the glucose deprivation-induced death in immunostimulated astroglia. Neurosci Lett.2005 Mar 16;376(3):171-6. Epub 2004 Dec 19

2005 | Hwang IK, Yoo KY, Kim DW, Han BH, Kang TC, Choi SY, Kim JS, Won MH. Protein disulfide isomerase immunoreactivity and protein level changes in neurons and astrocytes in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region following transient ischemia. Neurosci Lett. 2005 Feb 28;375(2):117-22. Epub 2004 Dec 10

2004 | Hwang IK, Yoo KY, Kim DS, Do SG, Oh YS, Kang TC, Han BH, Kim JS, Won MH. Expression and changes of galanin in neurons and microglia in the hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils. Brain Res. 2004 Oct 15;1023(2):193-9

2004 | Ju C, Oh YJ, Han BH, Kim HS, Kim HC, Kim WK. Intracellular pH-dependent peroxynitrite-evoked synergistic death of glucose-deprived astrocytes. Free Radic Biol Med. 2004 Oct 15;37(8):1160-9

2004 | Choi WS, Eom DS, Han BS, Kim WK, Han BH, Choi EJ, Oh TH, Markelonis GJ, Cho JW, Oh YJ. Phosphorylation of p38 MAPK induced by oxidative stress is linked to activation of both caspase-8- and -9-mediated apoptotic pathways in dopaminergic neurons. J Biol Chem. 2004 May 7;279(19):20451-60. Epub 2004 Mar 1

2004 | Choi JW, Shin CY, Yoo BK, Choi MS, Lee WJ, Han BH, Kim WK, Kim HC, Ko KH. Glucose deprivation increases hydrogen peroxide level in immunostimulated rat primary astrocytes. J Neurosci Res. 2004 Mar 1;75(5):722-31

2004 | Kang SS, Lee JY, Choi YK, Kim GS, Han BH. Neuroprotective effects of flavones on hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuroblostoma cells. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 May 3;14(9):2261-4

2003 | Manabat C, Han BH, Wendland M, Derugin N, Fox CK, Choi J, Holtzman DM, Ferriero DM, Vexler ZS. Reperfusion differentially induces caspase-3 activation in ischemic core and penumbra after stroke in immature brain. Stroke. 2003 Jan;34(1):207-13.

2002 | Hee Han B, Choi J, Holtzman DM. Evidence that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase contributes to neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Dev Neurosci. 2002;24(5):405-10.

2002 | Arvin KL, Han BH, Du Y, Lin SZ, Paul SM, Holtzman DM. Minocycline markedly protects the neonatal brain against hypoxic-ischemic injury. Ann Neurol. 2002 Jul;52(1):54-61

2002 | Han BH, Xu D, Choi J, Han Y, Xanthoudakis S, Roy S, Tam J, Vaillancourt J, Colucci J, Siman R, Giroux A, Robertson GS, Zamboni R, Nicholson DW, Holtzman DM. Selective, reversible caspase-3 inhibitor is neuroprotective and reveals distinct pathways of cell death after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. J Biol Chem. 2002 Aug 16;277(33):30128-36. Epub 2002 Jun 10

2002 | Back SA, Han BH, Luo NL, Chricton CA, Xanthoudakis S, Tam J, Arvin KL, Holtzman DM. Selective vulnerability of late oligodendrocyte progenitors to hypoxia-ischemia. J Neurosci. 2002 Jan 15;22(2):455-63

2001 | Han BH, DeMattos RB, Dugan LL, Kim-Han JS, Brendza RP, Fryer JD, Kierson M,Cirrito J, Quick K, Harmony JA, Aronow BJ, Holtzman DM. Clusterin contributes to caspase-3-independent brain injury following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. Nat Med. 2001 Mar;7(3):338-43

2001 | Gibson ME, Han BH, Choi J, Knudson CM, Korsmeyer SJ, Parsadanian M, Holtzman DM. BAX contributes to apoptotic-like death following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia: evidence for distinct apoptosis pathways. Mol Med. 2001 Sep;7(9):644-55

2001 | Holtzman DM, Han BH, He YY, Kim KM, Choi J, Hsu C. Reply to ‘Inhibition of post-ischemic brain injury by clusterin overexpression.' Nat Med 7: 978-979, 2001.

2000 | Han BH, Holtzman DM. BDNF protects the neonatal brain from hypoxic-ischemic injury in vivo via the ERK pathway. J Neurosci. 2000 Aug 1;20(15):5775-81.

2000 | Almli CR, Levy TJ, Han BH, Shah AR, Gidday JM, Holtzman DM. BDNF protects against spatial memory deficits following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. Exp Neurol. 2000 Nov;166(1):99-114

2000 | Lendon CL, Han BH, Salimi K, Fagan AM, Behrens MI, Muller MC, Holtzman DM. No effect of apolipoprotein E on neuronal cell death due to excitotoxic and apoptotic agents in vitro and neonatal hypoxic ischaemia in vivo. Eur J Neurosci. 2000 Jul;12(7):2235-42

2000 | Kim HD, Turner JT, Burnett JE, Joo NS, Han BH, Lim RW, Bowen JW, Kirk RG, Lee P. Furosemide stimulates K transport in HCD57 erythroid cells. J Membr Biol. 2000 Jun 1;175(3):235-44

1999 | Selznick LA, Holtzman DM, Han BH, Gökden M, Srinivasan AN, Johnson EM Jr, Roth KA. In situ immunodetection of neuronal caspase-3 activation in Alzheimer disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1999 Sep;58(9):1020-6.

1999 | Joo NS, Clarke LL, Han BH, Forte LR, Kim HD. Cloning of ClC-2 chloride channel from murine duodenum and its presence in CFTR knockout mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 Sep 3;1446(3):431-7.

1999 | Han BH. Interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide induce mouse guanylate-binding protein 3 (mGBP3) expression in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. Arch Pharm Res. 1999 Apr;22(2):130-6

1998 | Han BH, Park DJ, Lim RW, Im JH, Kim HD. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a novel guanylate-binding protein, GBP3 in murine erythroid progenitor cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998 May 9;1384(2):373-86

1997 | Chen B, Han BH, Sun XH, Lim RW. Inhibition of muscle-specific gene expression by Id3: requirement of the C-terminal region of the protein for stable expression and function. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997 Jan 15;25(2):423-30

1991 | Lee JW, Han BH, Lee JW, Seok JH, Kim SC, Hong YH, Suh JJ, Hong SU. Antihypertensive and cardiovascular effects of the new calcium antagonist YH334. Arch Pharm Res. 1991 Sep; 14: 242-248

Presentations and Published Abstracts:

2021 | Everhart E, Han BH, The Effects of Amentoflavone on Aβ40-Induced Cerebrovascular Dysfunction. 13th Annual Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research Symposium, Kirksville, MO, November 13, 2021.

2021 | Cofell B, Han BH, Pharmacological Effects of Amentoflavone on Extracellular Amyloid Beta Clearance in Mouse Neuronal Neuro-2a Cells. 13th Annual Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research Symposium, Kirksville, MO, November 13, 2021.

2020 | Anderson M, Naik, R, Garman A, Han BH, Role of the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 in brain injury following hypoxic-ischemia in neonatal mice. 12th Annual Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research Symposium, Kirksville, MO, November 7, 2020.

2020 | Trivedi M, Fanega IL, Castellanos C, Han BH, Ostrowski TD, Role of Amyloid Beta in Breathing Dysfunction Associated with Alzheimer’s disease. 12th Annual Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research Symposium, Kirksville, MO, November 7, 2020.

2019 | Bray P, Han BH, Role of the Orphan Nuclear Receptor NR4A1 in Neuroprotection from Oxidative Stress Cytotoxic Insults on Neuronal N2A Cells. 11th Annual Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research Symposium, Kirksville, MO, November 2, 2019.

2019 | Naik R, Chang Y, Han BH, Protective Role of MCPIP1 in Brain Injury Following Hypoxic-Ischemia in Neonatal Mice. Experimental Biology 2019, Orlando, FL, April 6-9, 2019.

2019 | Theobald RT and Han BH, Cognition Assessment in APPPS1 Transgenic Mice, Experimental Biology 2019, Orlando, FL, April 6-9, 2019.

2018 | Windsor PK, Plassmeyer SP, Mattock D, Han BH, Miller B, Investigation of Amyloid beta biflavonoid inhibitors in Alzheimer’s Disease. 10th Annual Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research Symposium, Kirksville, MO, October 27, 2018.

2018 | Naik R, Han BH, Role of MCPIP1 on Neurodegeneration Following Hypoxic-Ischemia in the Neonatal Mouse. 10th Annual Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research Symposium, Kirksville, MO, October 27, 2018.

2018 | Han BH, Endogenous neuroprotection against acute brain injury, ATSU Basic Sciences Seminar, February 9, 2018.

2018 | Ananth K. Vellimana, Diane J. Aum, Byung H. Han, Jeffrey M. Gidday, Gregory J. Zipfel. Minocycline Protects against Delayed Cerebral Ischemia after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage via Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Inhibition. American Academy of Neurology 70th Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, April 21-27, 2018

2017 | Ananth K. Vellimana, Diane J. Aum, Byung H. Han, Jeffrey M. Gidday, Gregory J. Zipfel. SIRT1 activation: A strategy for harnessing endogenous protection against SHA-induced neurovascular dysfunction. The American Academy of Neurological Surgery conference. Four Seasons Resort The Biltmore, Santa Barbara, CA. September 13 - 16, 2017.

2017 | Plassmeyer S, Windsor PK, Mattock DS, Han BH, and Miller BR. Computational Investigation of biflavonoid inhibitors of Amyloid-beta aggregation in Alzheimer’s disease. Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research symposium, ATSU, Kirksville, MO, Nov 11, 2017.

2016 | Choi EY, Han BH. Effects of Amentoflavone on the Aggregation and Disaggregation of Amyloid β. Poster presented at the 8th Annual Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research Conference; Kirksville, MO; November 5, 2016.