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Diseases Affecting the Skin and Eyes

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Type of Organism and Disease
Microbial Agent
Mode of Transmission
Classic Feature
Bacterial
  • skin
Impetigo
Staphylococcus aureus

Streptococcus pyogenes

Contact with infected person honey brown colored scab 
Image
    Folliculitis, boils
Staphylococcus aureus Infection of hair follicles by normal flora purulent lesion, folliculitis, Carbuncle 
Scalded Skin Syndrome
Staphylococcus aureus Infection of infant skin by normal flora  very erythematous and peeling skin, Image
Erysipelas
Streptococcus pyogenes Infection of skin by toxin producing species extensive redness and swelling, Image 1, Image 2
Leprosy
Mycobacterium leprae Repeated exposure to infected person white scaly lesion, no pain on pin prick, tuberculoid leprosy= Image1, lepromatous leprosy= Image2
Lyme disease
Borrelia burgdorferi tick bite bull's eye lesion, erythema chronicum migrans, Image, Image2
Syphilis
Treponema pallidum Exposure to infected person hard chancre, Image (primary), Secondary chancres are macules on skin and palms and soles, Image (secondary)
Chancroid
Haemophilus ducreyi Exposure to infected person soft chancre, Image
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Rickettsia rickettsii tick bite fever, headache, maculopapular rash (also seen on palms and soles), Image
Bacterial
  • Eye
Microbial Agent
Mode of Transmission
Classic Feature
Pink Eye (conjunctivitis)

Adenovirus, Enterovirus, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis

Person to person contact via infected secretions dilated blood vessels (less severe in viral causes), matter from eyes (minimal with viral and chlamydial causes), swollen eyelids,  image
Trachoma
Chlamydia trachomatis Person to person contact via contaminated fingers or objects pannis, trachoma grading with images (WHO)
Opthalmia neonatorium
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis From mother to newborn purulent destructive eye disease, Neisseria Image, Chlamydia image
Viral
  • Skin
Microbial Agent
Mode of Transmission
Classic Feature
Chickenpox-shingles
Varicella-zoster virus or Human Herpes virus 3 Contact with skin lesions or respiratory secretions vesicular lesions, severe localized pain, chickenpox= Image, Shingles
Measles
Rubeola virus Contact with oral secrestions red macular lesions, confluent lesions, Image
Fifth Disease
Parvovirus B19 Contact with oral secrestions slapped cheek syndrome, Erythema infectiosum, Image
Sixth Disease
Human Herpes Virus 6B and sometimes Human Herpes Virus 7 Contact with oral secrestions Exanthem subitum, Roseola infantum, Image
German Measles (rubella)
Rubella virus Contact with respiratory secretions red light rash, Image
Warts
Papilloma virus Contact with infected person rough cauliflower-like lesions, Condyloma Acuminatum, Image
Cold Sores, Herpes Simplex Labialis
Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 or Human Herpes virus 1 Contact with secretions ? vesicular painful lesions, Image
Genital herpes, Herpes Simplex Genitalis
Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 or Human Herpes virus 2 Contact with lesions and via secretions. Lesions do not need to be present to infect as with cold sores, Image
Kaposi's Sarcoma
Human Herpes virus 8 ??? Dark irregular skin lesion, Image
Viral
  • Eye
Microbial Agent
Mode of Transmission
Classic Feature
Herpetic keratoconjunctivitis
Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 or Human Herpes virus 1 Contact with eye secretions
Epidemic keratoconjunctivis
Adenoviruses Contact with eye secretions
Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis
Echoviruses and Coxsackieviruses Contact with eye secretions
Fungal
  • Skin
Microbial Agent
Mode of Transmission
Treatment and/or Prevention
Superficial mycoses
Malassezia furfur, Piedraia sp., Exophiala sp., Trichosporon beigelii Person to person via direct or indirect means  Pityriasis versicolor
Cutaneous mycoses (Tineas)
Trichophyton sp., Microsporum sp., and Epidermophyton sp. Contact with infected humans or animals via direct or indirect means Tinea corporis, Tinea unguium
Candidiasis
Candida albicans debilitated patients white removable curd-like, Candidosis of mouth, Image2
Parasites: 

Protozoal

  • skin
Microbial Agent
Mode of Transmission
Classic Feature
Leishmaniasis
Leishmania tropica, L. braziliensis bite of sandfly Cutaneous, Mucocutaneous
Parasites: 

Helminth

  • Eye
Microbial Agent
Mode of Transmission
Classic Feature
Loiasis (eye worm)
Loa loa Bite of tabanid fly small worm crawling across eye, Image
Onchocerciasis (river blindness)
Onchocerca volvulus Bite of Black fly Nodule, worms in nodule, blindness caused by this worm
last revised 8/7/13
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Copyrightę 2013 Neal R. Chamberlain, Ph.D.
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