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1. White House, Statement by George W. Bush, “Strengthening the International Regime against Biological Weapons,” Office of the Press Secretary, November 1, 2001. 

2. Marc S. Traeger et. al., First Case of Bioterrorism-Related Inhalational Anthrax in the United States, Palm Beach County, Florida, 2001. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2002;8. 

3. John A. Jernigan, et. al., Bioterrorism-Related Inhalational Anthrax: The First 10 Cases Reported in the United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2001;7. 

4. Brennan P. So what’s the FBI doing about anthrax attacks?, June 5, 2002. P.O. Box 20989, West Palm Beach, Florida. U.S.


5. Tucker, J.B. ed. Toxic Terror: Assessing Terrorist Use of Chemical and Biological Weapons, Bcsia in International Security, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press 2001.


6. MSEHPA Center for Law and the Public’s Health at Georgetown and Jones Hozkines Universities. The Model State Emergency Health Powers Act. Washington, D.C., 2001a; pg. 1-104. (


7. Cordesman, A.H. Defending America: Redefining the Conceptual Borders of Homeland Defense. The Risks and Effects of Indirect, Covert, Terrorist and Extremist Attacks with Weapons of Mass Destruction. Center For Strategic and International Studies. 1800 K Street N.W. Washington, DC. 20006


9. Murray, P.R. Medical Microbiology. 4th edition. 2002. Mosby, Inc. St. Louis, MO.


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10. Mayor, A. Greek Fire, Poison Arrows & Scorpion Bombs: Biological and Chemical Warfare in the Ancient World. 2003. Overlook Hardcover. 

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12. Derbes VJ. 1966. De Mussis and the great plague of 1348: a forgotten episode of bacteriological war. JAMA. 196:59-62. 

13. Christopher, G.W. et. al. 1997. Biological Warfare: A Historical Perspective. JAMA 278:412-417.


14. Mayor, A., 1995. The Nessus shirt in the new world: smallpox blankets in history and legend. Journal of American Folklore 108 (427): 54-77.


15. E. Wagner Stearn and Allen E. Stearn, The Effects of Smallpox on the Destiny of the American Indian (Boston: Bruce Humphries, 1945), pp. 44-5.


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17. Wheelis, M. 1999. Biological sabotage in World War I. p. 35-62 in E. Geissler and J.E.v.C. Moon (Eds.) Biological and toxin weapons: research, development and use from the Middle Ages to 1945. Oxford University Press, Oxford.


18. Harris, S.H. 1994. Factories of death: Japanese biological warfare 1932-1945 and the American cover-up. Routlidge, London.


19. Williams, P., and D. Wallace. 1989. Unit 731: the Japanese army’s secret of secrets. Hodder & Stoughton, London. 

20. Leitenberg, M. An Assessment of the Biological Weapons Threat to the United States. White Paper prepared for the Conference on Emerging Threats, at the Institute for Security Technology Studies, Dartmouth College, July 7-9, 2000. The Journal of Homeland Security, January 2001.

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23. Leitenberg, M. Biological weapons and “bioterrorism” in the first years of the 21st century. Center for International and Security Studies, School of Public Affairs, University of Maryland. Paper prepared for Conference on “The possible use of biological weapons by terrorists groups: scientific, legal and international implications, Rome, Italy, April 16, 2002, updated July 10, 2002.


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34. Harvey J. McGeorge, "Chemical and Biological Terrorism," Briefing Document, Public Safety Group, Woodbridge, Virginia, April 1996. See also Harvey J. McGeorge, "Chemical and Biological Terrorism: Analyzing the Problem," The ASA [Applied Science & Analysis] Newsletter, no. 42 (June 16, 1994), pp. 1, 13-14.

35. Ron Purver, Chemical and Biological Terrorism: The Threat According to the Open Literature (Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Security Intelligence Service, June 1995).

36. Bruce Hoffman, "The Debate over the Future Terrorist Use of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Weapons," pp. 207-224, in Hype or Reality: The New Terrorism" and Mass Casualty Attacks, B. Roberts, ed. (Alexandria, Virginia: CBACI, 2000). 

37. Tucker, J.B. and A. Sands, "An Unlikely Threat," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 55:4 (July-August 1999), pp. 46-52. 

38. Török TJ, Tauxe RV, Wise RP, Livengood JR, Sokolow R, Mauvais S, et al. A large community outbreak of salmonellosis caused by intentional contamination of restaurant salad bars. JAMA 1997;278:389-95. 

39. Moodie, M. Executive Summary; Fighting Bioterrorism: Tracking and Assessing U.S. Government Programs. December 2004. Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute. 1747 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW · Seventh Floor Washington, D.C. 

40. Moreno, J.D. In the wake of terror; Medicine and morality in a time of crisis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press 2003. 

41. Presidential directive May, 22, 1998.

42. Lee. C. Emergency Plans Found Lacking. March 30, 2004 Washington Post p. A17.


43. Health Acts 2000: Summary; The Public Health Improvement Act, National Conference of State Legislatures. February 8, 2001. 

44. Kosal. M.E. 2003. The Basics of Biological and Chemical Weapons Detectors. Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies. Monterey, CA. (

45. White House, Statement by George W. Bush, “U.S. Will Meet WMD Threat with Confidence, Determination,” Office of the Press Secretary, December 11, 2002. 

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47. Emergency preparedness and response. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta Georgia, U.S. 

48. The Honorable Carl Ford Assistant Secretary of State for Intelligence and Research before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, March 19, 2002. 

49. Health Aspects of Chemical and Biological Weapons. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1970. 

50. Office of Technology Assessment, US Congress. Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office; 1993. Publication OTA-ISC-559. 

51. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Rift Valley Fever, Special Pathogens Branch, Atlanta Georgia, U.S. 

52. Douglass J.D. Jr, N.C. Livingstone.  America the Vulnerable: the Threat of Chemical and Biological Warfare.  Lexington, MA, Lexington Books, 1987. 

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54. Ricin and the umbrella murder. October 23, 2003. 

55. Eitzen, E. J. Pavlin, T. Cieslak, G. Christopher, R. Culpepper Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook, Third Edition, July 1998 U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland

  56. D.R. Franz et. al. 1997. Clinical Recognition and Management of Patients Exposed to Biological Warfare Agents. JAMA 278:399-411. 

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60. Reddy, V. et. al. Infant botulism New York City, 2001-2002. Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report. 2003;50(02);21-24.


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63. Feldman, K.A. et. al. Tularemia on martha's vineyard: seroprevalence and occupational risk. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2003;19(3).

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65. Borio, L. et. al. Hemorrhagic fever viruses as biological weapons. JAMA. 2002;287(18); 2391-2405. 

66. LeDuc, J.W. and P.B. Jahrling, Strengthening National Preparedness for Smallpox: an Update. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2001;7(1).  

67. DOE openness: Human Radiation Experiments. U.S. Department of Energy. The Office of Human Radiation Experiments. August 17, 1995. 

68. Lee M. A. and B. Shlain, Acid Dreams: The Complete Social History of LSD: The CIA, the Sixties, and Beyond. Grove Press; 1985.

 69. Jones JH. Bad blood: the Tuskegee syphilis experiment. New York: The Free Press; 1981.

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